If you are at a loss in choosing a solid fuel boiler for your cottage or cottage, then reading this article will facilitate your task. The presented material contains brief information on the principle of operation of such equipment, lists the best manufacturers in our opinion and the most reliable models.
- Which solid fuel boiler is better to buy
- The best solid fuel direct combustion boilers
- The best solid fuel boilers for long burning
- The best pyrolysis solid fuel boilers
- The best pellet boilers with a hopper
The selection of goods was carried out on the basis of reviews, opinions and ratings of users posted on various resources on the Internet. All information is taken from public sources. We do not cooperate with manufacturers and trademarks and do not call for the purchase of certain products. The article is for informational purposes only.
Which solid fuel boiler is better to buy
There are many different types of solid fuel boilers on the modern market. Each type of equipment has its own technical features and efficiency. To facilitate the process of choosing a solid fuel boiler, you need to have a clear idea of each type of this equipment.
Solid fuel boilers for natural combustion
This type of boiler is simple in design and affordable.
For work, any type of solid fuel is suitable for him:
Wastes from wood processing enterprises.
The best energy performance is achieved when working on coal, which has a high calorific value. Burning is carried out due to the natural supply of external air to the furnace. Modern models are equipped with temperature controllers that change the position of the damper at the entrance to the combustion chamber. During operation, it is required to regularly add fuel, remove ash and periodically clean the chimney from soot.
Obvious advantages of such boilers:
- ease of installation;
- fuel availability;
- lack of dependence on external networks (electric and gas).
Sectional solid-fuel boiler of natural combustion.
Solid fuel boilers long burning
Such devices represent the next step in the development of boiler equipment. They have an advanced form of the furnace, forced air supply, and an intelligent control system. The programs incorporated in the control unit make it possible to increase the burning duration of a single firewood bookmark up to 24 hours, which is very convenient for residents. The relationship between the operation of the blower and the circulation pump, adjusted for temperature indicators, allows to achieve the optimal heating mode of the building.
A feature of these boilers is that the firewood in them does not burn simultaneously in the entire volume of the furnace. The region of intense oxidation gradually shifts from one end of the combustion chamber to the other.
Advantages of such equipment:
- adjustable combustion process with increased heating time;
- economical fuel consumption;
- simplified service;
- minimal soot formation.
Solid fuel boiler long burning in the context.
Normal operation of boilers of this class occurs in the high-temperature generation of combustible gases. In technology, this process is called pyrolysis. As fuel, wood is usually used, which from the point of view of a chemist is a complex mixture of high molecular weight compounds. Under the action of high temperatures with a lack of oxygen, they break down to simple gases, which burn with the release of the bulk of the heat.
The furnace of such a boiler is usually divided into two compartments. Firewood smolders in the main chamber, releasing combustible gases intensively. Entering the afterburning zone, they mix with the secondary air and completely burn out. The temperature of this stage reaches 1200about C, which guarantees the absence of harmful emissions in the waste mixture.
The heat generated in both chambers is generated by a water heat exchanger associated with the heating circuit of the building. Due to the completeness of fuel combustion and controlled air supply, such boilers demonstrate the highest possible energy efficiency. The disadvantages include increased demands on the quality of loaded firewood, the relative humidity of which in most cases should not exceed 16%.
Advantages of such equipment:
- high profitability;
- lengthening the heating period on one tab of fuel;
- high level of automation;
- minimum unburned waste.
Sectional pyrolysis boiler.
Pellet boilers operate on specially prepared solid fuel. Pellets are granules made from waste products: sawdust, agricultural residues, peat. They are distinguished by their convenient shape, low humidity and high calorific value.
Boilers of this category almost do not require human participation in the process of maintaining fire. It happens that once a week to fill the granules in the hopper. Everything else will be done by automation.
Given the availability of pellets, the advantages of such equipment are undeniable:
- profitability of operation;
- ease of management and minimal maintenance;
- high level of automation;
- environmental Safety.
Sectional pellet boiler.
Heat exchanger - steel or cast iron
The reliability and overall performance of the heating system largely depend on the material and design of the heat exchanger. Historically, solid fuel boilers come with two main types of heat exchangers.
Cast Iron Heat Exchangers
Cast iron heat exchangers have a sectional structure. Their main advantages:
- convenience of transportation and repair;
- resistance to chemical corrosion;
- ability to work at high temperatures;
- high thermal conductivity;
- reasonable cost.
But do not forget about the shortcomings. Among them:
- a high probability of destruction during a sharp temperature drop, which often happens when cold water is supplied to a hot apparatus;
- Such boilers heat up a little longer, but they also retain heat for a longer time.
Steel heat exchangers
Steel heat exchangers are almost always manufactured as a single unit with a boiler. Steel is a more ductile material and is not afraid of temperature changes, but with intensive and careless operation in the weld area, thermal fatigue zones can form with the subsequent appearance of cracks. Unlike the cast-iron heat exchanger, the design of which allows the replacement of the rejected section, high-quality repair of the steel block is possible only in the factory using welding and heat treatment.
Solid fuel boiler heat exchanger.
What you need to know about power
The power of the boiler is its main characteristic. It shows how much heat energy it can generate per unit of time. This indicator directly depends on the type of fuel used, the size and design features of the equipment. It is laid at the design stage and is confirmed by numerous tests of the finished sample. Domestic solid fuel boilers can reach power of several tens of kW.
It must be remembered that most solid fuel boilers are adapted to work on different types of fuel. The manufacturer usually indicates the maximum performance achieved under ideal conditions. When switching from the use of coal to raw wood, the loss of power can reach 25-30%.
Tips for choosing a boiler
The future owner of a solid fuel boiler must know the following before buying:
1. What type of fuel will most easily and economically be acquired in the area of residence. It can be coal, peat, firewood, organic briquettes or pellets.
2. Decide on the necessary capacity of the equipment working for heating the building. In general, 1 kW of boiler energy is required to heat every 10 square meters of a well-insulated house. The calculation should be performed with a small margin, since the heat transfer efficiency gradually decreases over the years of operation.
3. If you need to not only heat the building, but also produce hot water for household needs, the purchased boiler must be double-circuit.
4. The quality requirements of the boiler used in the cottage with continuous living should be higher than for a country house visited periodically.
We gradually approached the choice of specific equipment. The proposed rating of solid fuel boilers for heating a private house should help you in this. When compiling it, technical characteristics, reputation of manufacturers, reviews of specialists and users were taken into account.
The best solid fuel direct combustion boilers
Viadrus Hercules U22
The lineup of this series of Vidarus boilers is represented by seven solid fuel boilers with a capacity of 20 to 49 kW. The most productive of them is able to heat a building with an area of up to 370 sq.m. All equipment is designed for a maximum pressure in the heating circuit of 4 atm. Operating temperature range in the coolant circulation system from 60 to 90about C. The manufacturer claims the efficiency of each product is at 78%.
All models of the presented line are intended for floor installation. They have an open combustion chamber with air supply due to natural draft. Large doors of a square configuration can be opened wide open, which is convenient when loading fuel, removing ash and revising the state of internal elements.
The built-in heat exchanger made of high-quality cast iron is adapted for operation in a single-circuit heating system. The boilers do not have devices powered by an external electrical network, and are operated in a completely autonomous mode. All settings are mechanical.
Fuel used.The design of the spacious firebox is designed to use firewood as the main fuel, but coal, peat and briquettes can be used.
The line of six solid fuel boilers Zota Topol-M begins with a compact model with a capacity of 14 kW, designed to heat a house for an average family, and ends with an 80-kilowatt unit that can heat a large cottage or production workshop. Boilers are designed for operation in a system with a pressure of up to 3 bar. Efficiency of use of thermal energy of 75%.
Their distinguishing feature is a slightly raised design, which makes it more convenient to open the ash pan door and empty it. An open combustion chamber with a chimney connection from the rear wall. There is a built-in temperature sensor. All adjustments are manual.
A heat exchanger for a single-circuit heating system is mounted inside, connected to 1.5 or 2 ”pipelines. The boilers operate offline. Products of this brand are easy to install and reliable in operation.
Fuel used. Firewood or coal is used as fuel, for which a special grate is provided.
Bosch Solid 2000 B-2 SFU
Solid fuel boilers Bosch Solid 2000 B-2 SFU are presented by a number of models with power from 13.5 to 32 kW. They are able to heat buildings with a useful area of up to 240 sq.m. Parameters of the circuit: pressure up to 2 bar, heating temperature from 65 to 95about C. Passport efficiency 76%.
Units have a built-in single-section heat exchanger made of cast iron. It is included in the single-circuit heating system through standard 1 ½ ”fittings. The boilers are equipped with an open combustion chamber with a chimney with a diameter of 145 mm. For normal operation requires a connection to an electrical network voltage of 220 volts.
A temperature controller and protection against overheating of water are provided. The ash pan has a small volume, therefore, requires regular cleaning. Manufacturer's warranty 2 years. The design is simple, safe and highly reliable.
Fuel used. The boiler is designed to use coal. On this type of fuel, it demonstrates high efficiency. When working on wood or briquettes, the efficiency decreases markedly.
The series of solid fuel boilers Protherm Bober is represented by five models with a capacity of 18 to 45 kW. This range completely covers any private home. The unit is designed to operate as part of a single-circuit heating circuit with a maximum pressure of 3 bar and a coolant temperature of up to 90about C. For the correct operation of the control system and the actuation of the circulation pump, a connection to the household electrical network is required.
Boilers of this series are equipped with reliable cast-iron heat exchangers. The original design of the combustion chamber increases the efficiency of heat transfer. Exhaust gases are discharged through a chimney with a diameter of 150 mm. For connection to the heating circuit there are 2 ”nozzles. Such boilers are designed for long-term operation.
Fuel used.The declared capacity is designed for burning wood with a moisture content of up to 20%. The manufacturer provided the possibility of using coal. In this case, the efficiency increases by several percent.
The best solid fuel boilers for long burning
This domestic series of solid fuel boilers for long burning is represented by models with power from 15 to 60 kW. The equipment is intended for heating residential and industrial buildings. The boiler is single-circuit and has the following coolant parameters: maximum pressure 3 bar; temperature from 65 to 95about C. With an optimal setting, the efficiency reaches 80%. The boiler is characterized by ease of loading and the presence of movable grates to remove ash.
Boilers are completely non-volatile. Management is carried out mechanically. There is protection against coolant overheating. A built-in heat exchanger made of quality steel is installed. The duration of the combustion process is regulated by changing the flow rate of air entering the combustion chamber.
A chimney with a diameter of 180 mm and 2 ”circulating pipelines are connected to the apparatus from the back wall side.
Fuel used.It is recommended to use coal of a fraction of 10-50 mm as fuel.
The range of Lithuanian Candle heating equipment includes five long-burning boilers with a capacity of 18 to 50 kW.They are designed for floor installation in residential or industrial premises. Units are designed for autonomous operation as part of a separate heating system. An additional circuit for heating hot water is not provided. The device is designed for a pressure of 1.8 bar and a coolant temperature of 90about FROM.
The design of an open type fire chamber and automatic adjustment of the air supply provide for a long burning mode. A water “shirt” is built into the boiler body. There is an automatic overheat protection. Flue gas outlet pipe 160 mm. The diameter of the fittings of the circulation circuit 2 ".
Fuel used. Firewood or peat briquettes can be used as fuel.
The line of single-circuit long-burning boilers of Lithuanian production includes models with a capacity of 8, 15, 20, 30 and 40 kW. The buyer can easily choose a suitable unit for heating a private house or a small enterprise. The most productive of them is able to maintain optimal temperature in a building with an area of up to 300 sq.m. No electrical connection required.
During operation, the combustion zone smoothly shifts from top to bottom in the firebox. Efficiency reaches 91.6%. Maintenance consists in the periodic replacement of fuel, ash removal and periodic cleaning of the gas path, including the chimney.
The elongated housing shape saves usable space during installation. Volumetric firebox allows you to load up to 80 kg of fuel. Fine adjustment of the incoming air lengthens the burning time of one bookmark up to 31 hours. The heat carrier heats up to 70about C and circulates with a pressure of up to 2 bar. On the back there are fittings for connecting a chimney with a diameter of 200 mm and heating water 1 ¼ ”.
Fuel used. The boiler is designed to use dry firewood as the main source of energy.
The best pyrolysis solid fuel boilers
Buderus logano s171
German-made floor pyrolysis boilers Buderus Logano S171 are available in four versions with a capacity of 20, 30, 40 and 50 kW. They work in automatic mode and do not require constant monitoring by a person. Their performance is enough to heat low-rise buildings of various sizes. The efficiency of the equipment reaches 87%. For normal operation requires a connection to an electrical network voltage of 220 volts. Electricity consumption does not exceed 80 watts. The unit is reliable and easy to operate. Manufacturer's warranty 2 years.
The boiler has a spacious open combustion chamber with a two-stage air supply circuit. Exhaust gases are discharged through a chimney with a diameter of 180 mm. Wide doors facilitate fuel loading and revision of internal devices. The design pressure in the heating circuit is 3 bar. Heat carrier temperature 55-85about C. Protection against overheating.
Fuel used.The main source of energy is dry firewood up to 50 cm long. The burning time of one bookmark is 3 hours.
Ecosistem ProBurn Lambda
Bulgarian single-circuit pyrolysis type boilers are available in two versions with a capacity of 25 and 30 kW. Their performance is enough to heat a medium-sized private house. An automatic control system requires connection to a standard electrical network.
The unit is designed to heat circulating water to 90about C. Maximum pressure in circuit 3 of the atmosphere. There is protection against coolant overheating. The boiler is easy to maintain and highly efficient. A 12 month warranty is provided.
A nozzle with a diameter of 150 mm is provided for connecting the chimney and fittings 1 ½ ”for the circulation circuit.In the zone of exit from the furnace of exhaust gases a probe is installed that measures the concentration of oxygen. It gives control signals to the air damper.
Fuel used.Conventional firewood is used as fuel.
Atmos DC 18S, 22S, 25S, 32S, 50S, 70S
The line of elegant pyrolysis boilers of this brand includes a number of models ranging from 20 to 70 kW. They are designed for floor installation in residential, industrial and warehouse premises. The equipment is highly efficient and reliable. For the automatic control system to work correctly, the unit requires 220 volt supply from the mains. Maximum power consumption is 50 watts.
The system of intelligent control of the flow of air entering the combustion chamber provides an efficiency of each model at the level of 91%.
The devices are distinguished by spacious fire chambers of a special configuration, wide doors and a convenient control panel. The heat exchanger is designed for a maximum pressure of 2.5 bar. Ultimate heating medium 90about C. When overheated, a safety lock is activated. The exhaust gas outlet is adapted to connect chimneys of various diameters.
Fuel used.To load the furnace, firewood with a relative humidity of not more than 20% should be used.
This floor-standing boiler of the Korean brand is designed to heat residential and industrial premises with an area of up to 280 sq.m. He has two heat exchange circuits, working for heating and heating hot water for household needs. They are designed for operating pressures of 2 and 3.5 bar, respectively. For the correct operation of the equipment, it is necessary to connect to the electrical network.
This model has a remote control unit with the ability to select several operating modes. Automation protects equipment from overheating and freezing of the coolant. Unit efficiency 91%.
Fuel used.The main difference of the presented brand is versatility. The boiler is able to work not only on solid, but also diesel fuel. When loading coal, its power reaches 35 kW. With the liquid fuel option, it is reduced to 24.4 kW.
The best pellet boilers with a hopper
Buderus logano s181
German single-circuit solid fuel boilers Buderus Logano S181 series are represented by three models with a capacity of 15, 20 and 27 kW. They serve for heating low-rise residential and industrial buildings with an area of up to 216 sq.m. The equipment is designed to work with small fractions of coal or pellets.
Structurally, the products consist of two units installed in direct contact:
- the boiler itself with a combustion chamber, a heat exchanger and a control unit;
- capacious hopper for storing fuel stock with the possibility of dosed feed it into the combustion chamber.
To actuate the mechanisms and operation of the automation system, a 220 volt power supply is required. The boiler is able to heat the circulating coolant to 80about FROM.
The heat exchanger is designed for a pressure of 3 bar. In case of overheating, automatic protection is activated. Human participation in the regulation of the combustion process is almost not required. The efficiency of models in this series is 88%.
The line of solid fuel boilers of the Belgian brand ACV is represented by household and industrial units with a capacity of 60 to 300 kW. They have one heating medium circuit that circulates through the building's heating system. Installed electrical equipment needs to be connected to an alternating current network of 220 volts.
The unit consists of a housing with elements located inside it: a combustion chamber, an ash pan and heat-exchange equipment. A capacious hopper with a pellet supply is attached to the side.The heat exchanger is made of copper. Such material excellently conducts heat, is not afraid of corrosion and almost does not lend itself to the adhesion of layers of scale and dirt. The equipment withstands pressure of 3 bar and heats the circulating water to 80about FROM.
Such boilers are designed for continuous operation without human control. Their efficiency reaches 90%.
Zota 15S Pellet
Pellet boilers of this Russian brand are represented by a long model range of heating appliances with power from 15 to 130 kW. They have one heating medium heating circuit and are used exclusively for space heating. The maximum parameters of the circulating coolant:
- pressure 3 bar;
- temperature 95about FROM.
In case of overheating, a lock is activated. The device is distinguished by the presence of a large bunker designed to store stock of pellets and supply them to the furnace. It allows you to leave the boiler for a long time without direct control by a person.
For the operation of automation and the transport line, the unit must be connected to a household electrical network. On the back wall there are fittings for connecting a chimney with a diameter of 150 mm and heating pipes for 2 ”.
In the absence of pellets, you can switch to using ordinary wood. To do this, it is necessary to install the additional grate grill available in the delivery set and disconnect the secondary air supply tubes. Boilers of this brand are not only simple and unpretentious, but also achieve an efficiency of 90%.
Pellet boilers of the famous Korean manufacturer are available in two versions with a capacity of 24 and 50 kW. They are intended for heating and supplying hot water to residential and industrial premises. During installation, the equipment is connected to an electric network with a voltage of 220 volts, a chimney is connected, water supply pipelines are connected. In maximum performance mode, power consumption does not exceed 50 watts.
All connection nodes are located on the back side. The fitting for the exhaust gas outlet has a diameter of 120 mm, the pipes of water pipelines - ½ and ¾ ”. Hot water in the DHW circuit is heated to 65about C, and in the heating system - 85about C. Operating pressure reaches 6 and 2.5 bar, respectively. Boilers of this brand differ:
- compact sizes;
- convenience of setting using the remote control with digital indication of indications;
- high degree of automation;
- long period of work on one load;
Efficiency reaches 92.6%. In a given mode, the boiler is able to prevent the system from thawing, reaching minimum values to maintain a positive temperature. Organic fuel is used as fuel, loaded into a capacious hopper installed in the immediate vicinity of the boiler.